The effect of having COVID-19 on insomnia, fatigue, and quality of life: A comparative study with vaccinated and unvaccinated COVID-19–negative patients
Aim: To compare insomnia, fatigue, and activities of daily living of patients who were infected during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with those who did not have the infection, according to their vaccination status.
Methods: A total of 176 volunteers (104 women and 72 men) participated in the study. The study group was divided into three groups: patients who had COVID-19, individuals who did not have COVID-19 and were vaccinated, and those who did not have COVID-19 and were not vaccinated. The data collection tools were a personal information form; insomnia, fatigue and activities of daily living short questionnaire; and anxiety and depression inventories, which evaluated psychological status.
Results: There was no difference in terms of depression, insomnia, fatigue, and quality of life scale scores between the groups. Work and education status did not affect scores. The fatigue rate was higher in those who had COVID-19 (10.7%, p=0.007). Women's fatigue scores were higher (p<0.001), and their physical and psychological health scores in the quality of life scale were lower than men's (p=0.025 and p=0.007, respectively). The anxiety score of married participants was higher (p=0.021). The rate of insomnia was high in the entire study group (41.7%). Depression and anxiety were positively correlated with insomnia and fatigue. Depression was negatively correlated with all sub-parameters of quality of life, and anxiety was negatively correlated with physical, psychological health, and environment. There was no difference between insomnia, fatigue, depression, and quality of life scale scores between the groups, irrespective of COVID-19 infection.
Conclusion: The high rates of insomnia and depression suggested that the progression of the pandemic also brought about chronic health problems. Therefore, it is important to conduct extensive preventive health programs for the population.
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